Examples

Titanium Electron Beam (EB) Welded Plate
The multiple cut contour method was applied to map longitudinal and transverse components of residual stress in a 50 mm thick electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate in the as-welded condition. More details

P91 Welded Pipe
Here the contour method is applied in a novel way to a large welded P91 steel pipe and, for the first time, three direct components of the stress tensor along the cut plane are determined using the principle of superposition. The pipe was 370 mm long, 25 mm thick and had an outside diameter of 325 mm and had a multi-pass girth weld at mid-length. More details

AISI Type 316L Welded Pipe
The Contour Method was applied to a butt-welded pipe from the EU funded STYLE project which was fabricated from AISI Type 316L austenitic stainless steel with an outside diameter of 250 mm, thickness 25 mm and length 320 mm. The weld had a V-type bevel side-wall preparation and was made with a backing plate (removed after welding) using an automated GTAW welding process. A single contour cut was used to determine the distribution of hoop stresses on an axial-radial plane bisecting the welded pipe, i.e. the hoop stresses were mapped simultaneously on two wall thicknesses 180° apart. This approach included the effect of hoop bending stresses and their variation along the pipe in the contour measurement.  More details

Edge Welded Beam
The contour and slitting methods were conducted in tandem to measure residual stresses in a candidate residual stress simulation benchmark specimen. The test specimen was a simple beam-type geometry made from AISI Type 316H austenitic stainless steel that was autogenously welded along the top surface. More details

Welded Compact Tension (CT) Specimen
A T-shaped test coupon was made by electron beam (EB) welding a parent metal extension piece to a cross-weld sample extracted from an Esshete 1250 stainless steel pipe butt weld. The extension piece was added to the outer surface of the pipe sample so that a compact tension specimen of standard dimensions could be extracted for creep crack growth testing of heat affected zone material. Residual stresses in the CT blank were measured by three techniques: neutron diffraction, slitting, and the contour method. More details